Topoflow is a powerful and spatially distributed hydrological model with a user-friendly click interface. Its main purpose is to simulate many different physical processes in a watershed, and its goal is to accurately predict how various hydrological variables will evolve in response to climate forces.
Biosphere 3D is an open source project aimed at interactive landscape rendering based on Virtual Earth. The software system supports multiple scales, but it is mainly used to create realistic views from the line of sight level or near ground level. The software is released under the license of MPL and developed by lennal 3D for personal computers. Biosphere 3D was first released in 2007 by the visualization and data analysis department of the Zuse Institute in Berlin. Applications include landscape planning, landscape architecture, visual impact assessment, such as wind farms, power stations, land-use planning, archaeology, urban planning and forestry, enabling them to roam through landscape scenes or nearly reconstructed historical landscapes and gardens. Biosphere 3D, originally funded by the Federal Ministry of education and Research (Germany), was designed as a pure landscape visualization system in the "silvisio" of the R & D project.
Integrated water flow model is a computer program used to simulate the flow of land surface, surface water and groundwater. It is a rewrite of IGSM software. Iwfm program and source code are provided free of charge. It uses finite element method to simulate groundwater flow. Surface water flow can be simulated by a simple one-dimensional flow network or by moving wave method. Allows users to run models for a specific period of time while editing input files. Iwfm simulates four land use categories: agriculture, urban, native vegetation and riparian vegetation. Land use area is divided into a time series with corresponding evapotranspiration rate and water management parameters. In the agricultural and urban land use categories, iwfm applies surface water and groundwater according to a specific ratio, and can selectively adjust surface water and groundwater to meet water demand.
Anuga hydrodynamic modeling tool can build complex 2D hydrodynamic model. For example, simulate the fracture of a dam or the impact of natural disasters such as storms and tsunamis. A research area must be designated as a triangular unit, if applicable, to determine topography and bathymetric measurements, friction, initial water level values (Anuga referred to as the first stage), boundary conditions and forces such as rainfall, river flow, wind stress and pressure gradient networks. Anuga simulated the evolution of water depth and horizontal momentum with time in each element by solving the shallow water wave equation and using the finite volume method.
Delft3D is a powerful software package developed by WL Delft hydraulics of Delft University in the Netherlands, which is mainly used in free surface water environment. The software has a flexible framework, which can simulate two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow, wave, water quality, ecology, sediment transport and bed topography, as well as the interaction among various processes. It is one of the most advanced hydrodynamic water quality models in the world. Delft3D system is widely used in the world, such as the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Australia, the United States and so on, especially the United States has a long history of application. The Delft3D system has been used in Hong Kong since the mid-1970s and has become a standard product of the Hong Kong Environment Agency. Delft3D has been applied more and more in mainland China since the mid 80s, such as Changjiang Estuary, Hangzhou Bay, Bohai Bay, Taihu and Dianchi. Delft3D is the most advanced and complete 3D hydrodynamic water quality model system in the world, especially the unique support surface format.
Distributed hydrological model, water and energy prediction, geotop can be applied to very complex terrain, and integrates all surface energy balance conditions except water balance. For saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, 3D Richard equation is adopted to realize accurate input of radiation parameters to obtain surface temperature.